Extruder Spheronizer: A Complete Buying Guide

Extruder Spheronizer

In this guide, you will find all information about extruder Spherionizer.

This information will help you choose an effective and reliable extruder Spheronizer for all your material processing needs.

Whether you want to learn about parts, working principle uses, or the latest technology – all information is right here.

What Is Extruder Spheronizer?

Extruder Spheronizer is pharma pellet shapes extrudates into small rounded or spherical granules.

Additionally, it offers multiple functions, including granulation, drying, and coating.

Parts Of Extrusion Spheronization Equipment

Here are the main parts of this spheronization equipment;

Pellets Extruder spheronizer

Pellets extruder Spheronizer

– Extruder System

Extruder system forms the core units of this equipment.

It features several units and systems for producing the final desired product.

Parts of an extruder system vary depending on a particular model.

It consists of the following parts;

a) Storage Bin

Storage bin stores dry ingredients and provides a buffer of raw material.

This enables extruder’s continuous and stable feed ingredients supply.

The bin features rotating blades to prevent bridging.

b) Feed Hopper

Feed hopper is known as an easy feed-loading funnel or dry ingredient feeder.

Different models come with different ingredient feeders.

Volumetric and gravimetric feeders are its main classifications.

The former provides a consistent volume of dry ingredients.

It can never guarantee a uniform mass flow due to changes in feed material density.

On the other hand, gravimetric feeders regulate feed flow rate depending on mass delivered.

It guarantees higher accuracy.

c) Liquid Feeder

It feeds liquid raw materials mainly syrup and water into the machine.

Liquid ingredients metering is fundamental for efficient product manufacturing.

The notable volumetric metering devices include;

  • Fluid displacement meters
  • Differential pressure meters
  • Velocity flow meters
  • Mass flow meters.

d) Venting Ports

Venting ports are openings in the barrels.

They allow moisture and other volatile gases to escape from the product.

Gases and moisture escaping prevents the product from expanding.

The location of these ports is in the middle or end sections of the barrel.

e) Die Assembly

Die assembly functions as a restriction and forming instrument.

It is fixed at the end of the barrel.

Adjusting the die opening regulates the following;

  • Retention time
  • Pressure
  • Dimensions
  • Final product shape

f) Cutter

Cutter is a group of rotating knives mounted before the die plate.

It slices extrudates into predetermined dimensions.

The number of knives and their respective rotational speeds determine extrudate length.

g) Driving Unit

Driving unit provides power for rotating the extruder.

It consists of a gear box and electric motor.

The extruder system size determines the power rating of the driving unit.

h) Pre-Conditioner

Pre-conditioner adjusts moisture and pre-cooks raw materials before extrusion.

It ensures raw material stay warm and moist before extrusion.

Preconditioner is mounted between the feeding device and the extruder.

You can operate it at atmospheric or elevated pressure.

Extruder System Assembly

Number of screws forms the basis for classifying extruder system assembly.

It is available in two designs as follows;

Extruder system

Extruder system

Single-Screw Extruder Assembly

Single-Screw Extruder Assembly consists of a screw and barrel.

It rotates the screw with a stationary barrel.

It is available in screw patterns that provide various pressure profiles and shearing conditions.

A typical single-screw extruder assembly is divided based on functionality as follows;

  • Feeding
  • Compression
  • Final metering zones

Feeding zone pushes the incoming raw material to the metering zone.

This creates a continuous mass flow within the barrel.

Twin-Screw Extruder Assembly

Twin-screw extruder assembly is highly versatile.

It processes a wide range of materials like high-moisture and sticky ones.

This extruder assembly can have up to four screw configurations as follows;

  • Counter co-rotating with inter-meshing
  • Self-wiping
  • Non-intermeshing
  • Co-rotating with intermeshing are the possible screw configurations.

The barrel of twin-screw extruder assembly is divided into the following zones;

  • Feeding
  • Kneading
  • Final cooking.

Spheronization Equipment

Spherionization equipment

Spheronization equipment

Spheronization unit consists of three main parts as follows;

Friction plate

Friction plate features a grooved surface for deliberate intensification of frictional force.

The grooves in friction plate are categorized into two;

  1. Radial geometry – It has lines with similar arrangement to rays or radii of a circle.It adds or corrects any distortion in the final product
  2. Cross-hatch geometry – This groove has groups of clos-knit parallel lines.Friction plate configuration determines the final pellets feature in extrudate spheronization process.


Scrapper cleans various dust particles from the bowl wall and friction plate.

Water Jacket

Water-jacket is a water-filled casing surrounding a device.

It has a metal sheath with intake and outlet vents.

It allows pumping and circulation of water.

This helps in precise temperature control of the machine.

Barrel With Screw Auger

It is a vacuum cylindrical steel bodywork with a screw auger.

Barrel with screw auger pushes raw materials through the feed hopper.

It has three main units;

  • Feeding unit
  • Compression unit
  • Metering unit

Ingredients compression within barrel facilitates their conversion into identical mass before getting into the die.

You can attain a shearing and compression action by adopting tapered screw.

Decreasing screw pitch within a uniform diameter is another alternative to consider.

Metering unit, on the other hand, enables the consistent blending of compressed mass.

It exerts uniform pressure.

Barrel with a screw auger has a restricted opening.

The location is at the bottom of the barrel.

Die molds require cross-sectional configuration to the extruded product.

Blended mass experiences a pressure drop.

It happens while it enters die upon leaving the barrel’s metering unit.

This restricts clogging of the extruded product.

Die can have single or multiple openings.

Always find one without scratches or defects for premium-grade extruded product.

How Extruder Spheronizer Works

Here are four main principles describing how extruder Spheronizer works;

Step 1: Mixing And Granulation

It requires a mixer or granulator.

Mixing seemingly has insignificant effect in determining the final product process.

But the influence of various granulating parameters are fundamental.

Maintaining the granulation or mixing parameters constant is essential.

It eliminates undesired variation.

Always make systematic trials and show the effect in the mixing parameters.

Step 2: Extrusion

Extrusion is necessary before the predetermined material spheronization.

First, establish the extrudate diameter in spheronization process.

It determines the exact pellet size you need.

Screens or dies with large-hole diameters are rarely used.

This enables shrinkage on drying.

It produces spheres with a diameter range of about 0.4-8 mm.

Step 3: Spheronization

Modern spheronizing machines have multiple additions and adaptations.

It depends on the particular product and process.

The design principle of a spheronizer is straightforward.

Gradual detailed innovations and other design specifics broaden applications range.

It also enhance the machine’s flexibility.

Extruder spheronizer has a circular disc.

The disc features a spinning drive that rotates faster.

This circular disc is fixed at the bottom section of the cylindrical bowl.

The spinning friction has a prudent-groove configuration to the base.

Availability in different types and size simplifies selection of the ideal one.

Also, the disc design increases product friction.

Addition of extrudates to this machine leads to subsequent fall on the rotating plate.

Bowl wall rams into extrudates segments and bounces back to the friction plate interior.

The force from central pressure relays the material to the outer edges of the disc.

Once the material starts moving the respective action breaks down the extrudate into pieces.

The rod-shaped extrudate segments are rounded by smashes with bowl wall albeit progressively.

It happens as long as the granules are adequately pliable to facilitate deformation without destruction.

Attaining effective spheronization requires continuous movement.

The shapes and fragments change gradually as the process continues.

Eject the spheroids after 30 minutes once it attains predetermined shape.

Discharge valve in spheronization chamber opens once extrudate segments attain ideal spherical shape.

It then forces the centrifugal force to discharge the granules.

This allows it to attain narrow particle distribution in spheronizer.

Advantages Extrusion Spheronization Equipment

Some notable advantages of this equipment are as follows;

Agglomerates Material With A Uniform And Regulated Size

It provides an efficient method of producing homogenous discrete particles of different sizes.

This enhances high accuracy in dosage measurements for pharmaceutical products.

Optimizes Flow Characteristics

It uses systems in applications that require clear-cut dosing especially in pharmaceutical industry.

Increases Appearance Of Granulated Materials

Identical and regulated spheres enhances aesthetics.

It is necessary in competitive markets.

This allows the product to have marketing success.

The extruder spheronizer is an affordable technique to use to stand out in competition.

It offers an inexpensive method of separating your products from competition.

Improves Dosage Control Accuracy

This machine guarantees enhanced flow characteristics that facilitate precise dosage control.

Simplifies Handling Of Difficult Material

Some materials are difficult to handle.

Using this machine simplifies the handling during production process.

It increases the stability of such materials.

Also, it ensures the surrounding rarely affect them.

Improves Hardness And Friability Of Granules

Cohesive forces and surface properties determine the texture of any sphere.

This equipment diminishes the friability while increasing material hardness.

Factors To Consider When Buying Extruder Spheronization Machine

The main factors are classified under machine or product parameters.

Extruder spheronizer machine

Extruder Spheronizer machine

Machine Parameters

Some notable elements under machine parameters that you must always consider include;

Retention Time

Retention time is the period the equipment takes to process the material into a desired product.

It depends on many elements.

This period ranges from 3-8 minutes.

Attaining this is easy using unique products.

Cohesive forces in a wide range of products can be challenging.

It hampers the extrudate segments from crumbling into smaller pieces.

The process depends on your objectives like reducing dust.

It doesn’t revolve around obtaining perfect spheres.

Short interaction with friction plate fragments longer extrudates into smaller pieces.

It also shapes the extrudates into round margins.

Utilizing shorter spheronization time reduces the dust quantity.

Friction Plate Structure

Friction plate pattern in this machine is similar to a chessboard of chopped-of pyramids.

Actual choice depends on your preference and the desired product.

To attain best results use discs with radial design.

They are gentler on particular material being spheronized.

Friction Plate Speed

The ideal disc speed spin ranges from 250 to 500 revolutions per minute.

Higher RPMs requires exerting more pressure into the pieces during a collision.

The best speed is dependent on product characteristic and exact particle size.

Using a disc with small diameter implies higher speed becomes vital.

The disc’s outer edge is an integral aspect as far as plate speed is concerned.

A bit of experience allows you to establish the best optimum speed.

Initiate higher speeds for selected products and reduce them as the process finalizes.

Establishing this requires a straightforward intervention surrounding practical tests.

The process provides higher flexibility degree for suitable formulations.

Charge Volume/Weight

Charge volume/weight is the amount of product you feed into the equipment for spheronization.

The product characteristics and size of machine determine the best charge volume quantity.

There is optimal quantity for charging per batch into spheronizer chamber.

It guarantees best spheres and narrow particle distribution.

Increasing load per batch implies you increase sphere’s hardness and granule surface smoothness.

Product Parameters

Physical characteristics and specific product rheology determine spheronizer results.

The particles should be pliable for deformation under the impact they attain during the process.

It should also be strong enough to endure collisions with friction plates and bowl walls.

The strength prevents it from breaking or getting destroyed.

Here are some notable product parameters to consider in determining efficiency of this machine;


You can change product rheology by using lubricants and binders.

Alternatively, fluctuating liquid content mix enables you to alter the mixing time.


Lubricant enhances product pliability.

It also improves the volume of fine dust produced when spheronizing.


It is an essential lubricant but may stick on bowl wall and friction plate if used excessively.

In other instances, granules may stay intact to form bug lumps.

When the extrudates are too dry they may produce high amount of fine dust.

The suitable spheronization process moisture content is lower than in extrusion only.


Binders are critical in enhancing granule strength.

They also come in handy in decreasing volume of fine dust produced when spheronizing.

It thus becomes challenging to attain the best spheres if you add excessive binders.

The granule also becomes harder.

Uses Of Extruder Spheronizer

Extrusion process

Extrusion process

A spheronizing equipment is versatile.

The specific applications of this machine include production and facilitation of the following;

  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Agricultural chemicals
  • Home and personal care items
  • Atomic tablets
  • Toner
  • Cosmetics
  • Ceramics
  • Agrochemicals
  • Fertilizer
  • Food processing
  • Pigment
  • Insecticides/herbicides

How Granulation Machine Compare To Extruder Spheronizer

There is a thin line between granulation machine and extruder Spheronizer.

The main difference between these two machines lies in the working principle.

Granulator machine works by tumbling the material in the presence of a liquid binder.

This enhances granule formulation and growth.

The feed material is constantly fed on the rotating drum.

Rolling action and binder stickiness enable fines to collect into particles.

Such particles continue to densify while picking up extra layers.

This phenomenon is known as coalescence.

You can incorporate tumbling flights to enhance agitation of material bed.

It leads to agitation agglomeration, known as pelletizing, balling, or wet granulation.

On the other hand, granulation machine is part of the machine used in extruder spheronizer.

It means you’ll need to have a granulation machine to attain and complete spheronization process.

After materials granulation, they move to extrusion, spheronization, and drying or coating.

Extruder spheronizer functions as batch devices.

On the other hand, granulators can function as batch and continuous devices depending on the setting.

Retention time and overall wear time in both machines, depend on various factors.

Accompanying Options For Extruder Spheronizer Structure

These are the auxiliary alternatives that a extruder spheronizing equipment features.

The notable ones are as follows;


An automatic timer on a spheronizer is useful.

But it is not essential because spheronization is a batch and not a continuous process.

The ideal spheronization run time timing for each batch maintains standard operating processes.

Also, it improves performance standardization and product quality.

Air Introduction

It allows you to introduce airflow in the chamber under friction plate.

This inhibits dust from getting between the chamber wall and spinning plate.

Besides, it eliminates moisture from granule’s surface.

And this enhances friction forces and process efficiency.

Rum Heating/Cooling Jacket

Introducing a cooling jacket around the Spheronizer bowl is usually easy.

Using warm water eliminates moisture on chamber wall.

This prevents product from sticking to the wall.

Wall cooling inhibits temperature rise, particularly in products that are heat-sensitive.

Non-stick Coatings

You can coat the chamber wall and plate of some products with non-stick materials.

It eases the use with sticky materials or cleaning.

Latest Extruder Spheronizer Innovations In Pharmaceutical Industry

Advanced coating is a popular technology in modern extruder Spherionizer.

However, most manufacturers are still in the process of improving this technology.

Some of the emerging technologies and innovations include:

Melt Agglomeration

It involves undertaking solid particles through a continuous change in size and shape.

The process leads to agglomerates having molten binding liquid.

Heat from high-shear mixer friction generates a temperature rise that melts the agglomerates.

Agglomerates formation using this technique involves agitation, kneading, and layering.

Freeze Palletization

It is an improved and most straightforward technique for manufacturing spherical pellets.

This method involves introducing an immiscible molten solid carrier.

You may introduce a matrix with additives such as diluents, release modifiers, surfactants, and disintegrants.

You may introduce droplets into the liquid column to specific heights using atomizer, needles, or nozzles.

Hot Melt Extrusion

It is a new modification of extrusion-spheronization method.

This technique is vital in several aspects, such as complex formation in the melt and in-site salt formation.

Nanoparticles liberated from specific molecular dispersions and rapid dispersion mechanisms are other aspects of this method.


The method entails production of freeze-dried pellets.

It solidifies droplets of solutions, suspensions, or organic emulsions.

Its adoption in the pharmaceutical industry surrounds drug-loaded pellets production for regulated and immediate-release formulations.

This technique facilitates consistent and instant freezing of processed material.

CPS Pelletizing Technology

CPS, or complex perfect spheres, is a direct and modern pelletization of fluid bed rotor technology.

It is suitable for manufacturing matrix-type pellets and micropellets.

The system consists of a conically shaped spinning disc.

It also has supplementary devices for direct particle movement.

Particle movement applies numerous forces on rising pellet cores by rotating disc form and speed.

FAQs On Extruder Spheronizer

1. Why Is Spheronization Important?

It produces products with performance and functionality.

You can enhance or modify such products to meet different requirements.

It is also vital since its simplification reduces costs and improve operational security.

2. Which Equipment Do You Need For Spheronization Process?

  • Granulation/mixing machine
  • Extruder
  • Spheronizer
  • Drier/coating machine

3. Which Are The Key Process Parameters For Spheronization?

  • Friction plate speed
  • Retention time
  • Friction plate pattern
  • Charge volume/weight
  • Rheology

More Resources:


Extruder Spheronization Machine

Extrusion Spheronization

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